In 10 studies, opioid consumption was higher in men, whereas in the remainder no differences were found between the sexes. Examples of data fits of a male and female subject whose pain tolerance data did not exceed cutoff values are given in figure 3.
Mouse models now exist to test whether mice of the same gonadal sex either males or femaleswhich differ in sex chromosome complement XX vs. Another vignette study showed an interaction between physician and patient sex, in that female physicians prescribed higher doses of opioid pain medication for women than men with low back pain, whereas the reverse pattern emerged for male physicians.
Sex differences in serotonin enhancement of capsaicin-evoked calci-tonin gene-related peptide release from human dental pulp. Neurosci ; —9.
Gender disparity in analgesic treatment of emergency department patients with acute abdominal pain. Factors predisposing women to chronic pelvic pain: systematic review. There is one study that reported no gender difference in analgesic efficacy of paroxetine.
It is important to document as much of the experimental testing situation as possible. Effects of estrogen on plasma and pituitary gonadotropins and prolactin, and on hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors. The CPIC has put forth dosing guidelines based on pharmacogenetic variations for various drugs.
Assessing the relationship between cold pressor pain responses and dimensions of the anxiety sensitivity profile in healthy men and women.
Sex-related differences in human pain and rat afferent discharge evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle. An estimate of pain prevalence is also available for rural India. Estrogen-induced alteration of mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus and medial amygdala.
Osteoarthritis A recent meta-analysis on sex differences in osteoarthritis using clinical markers as the case definition not pain indicated that females are at significantly increased risk for osteoarthritis OA in the knee and hand compared with males. Sex differences in lumbar spinal cord gene expression following experimental lumbar radiculopathy.
Non-specific musculoskeletal pain in preadolescents: Prevalence and 1-year persistence. For example, in response to a laboratory public-speaking stressor, males exhibited a greater stress-related reduction in heat pain, whereas females showed a greater reduction with ischemic pain.
Whereas increased OR density has been reported for rats, 42 other investigators report no changes in OR density or affinity in rats and mice. There is also 1 report on sex differences in response to cutaneous anesthesia. In one study, women reported significantly higher ratings of worst and current pain intensity but there were no differences on the rating for least pain.
Neuropathic pain is a complex pain state in which the nerve fibers may be damaged, dysfunctional, or injured.