These phenomena are not well investigated theoretically, despite the recent development of exciting new models integrating sexual antagonism with demography [ 91 ], and the role of the sex chromosomes in local adaptation [ 94 ]. Genome Biol Evol 3 : — The selfish nature of SGEs generates conflict with the rest of the genome that will select for suppression and silencing.
Sex chromosome linked genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism of quantitative traits. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. There is substantial empirical evidence supporting at least some of this theory Table 1and references thereinalthough there remains something of a disconnect between molecular genetic and phenotypic findings Dean and Mank Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: Differentiation, evolutionary strata and lack of global dosage compensation.
Characterization of polygenic sex determination systems and identification of master sex determination genes across kingdoms will provide insight into the mechanistic constraints limiting the evolution of sex determination pathways. This stability could be due to an absence of genetic variation, particularly when multiple genetic steps are required for a transition to a new sex-determining system Figure 2.
On the basis of the above-mentioned results, it is plausible that the Neo-ZW group diverged from the primary XY group distributed around Lake Biwa through the introduction of frogs from the west Japan group. Schaefer H, Renner SS A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica Cucurbitaceae suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia.
Surprisingly, six populations P6 and P11—P15 were sex determination and sex chromosomes determine in Hamilton in females. Sex determination can also be regulated differently in the soma versus the germ line of the same species . Intermediate gametes do worse than small ones in terms sex determination and sex chromosomes determine in Hamilton mobility and numbers, and worse than large ones in terms of provisioning.
Evolution 45 : — There is no evidence that this is so. Berlin, Germany: Springer. These differences in effective population size may have profound effects on sex chromosome evolution and turnover. J Clin Invest.