Adolescent rats reared in an enriched environment with social cohorts and novel objects show an accelerated cortical maturation compared to isolated rats raised without cohorts or objects Renner and Rosenzweig, When subsequently asked whether the scenes were old or new, recognition memory improved with age and this age-related improvement in memory was accompanied by greater activation in various PFC regions.
One brain sex differences orbitofrontal cortex cingulate in Lexington of this finding is that emotional self-regulation in children requires the recruitment of more connections within the immature PFC compared to more practiced adults. The medial prefrontal cortex in the rat: evidence for a dorso-ventral distinction based upon functional and anatomical characteristics.
Nat Rev Neurosci. Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. Self-regulation failure: an overview.
Li et al. Goal-directed instrumental action: contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. This raises the possibility that maltreated children have a deficit in mPFC inhibitory processes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, as well as in self-control.